The foundation stone of ICAR-Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology (IIAB) was laid by the Hon’ble Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Govt. of India on August 25, 2014 at Garhkhatanga, Ranchi (Jharkhand). Currently the institute is operating from a camp office established at the Process and Demonstration Unit (PDU) campus of ICAR-IINRG located at Namkum, Ranchi. IIAB envisages meeting the growing demand of agricultural products and processes with faster pace by deploying cutting edge molecular tools and techniques. Development of world class human resource by teaching and training at master, doctoral and post-doctoral levels in all the frontier areas of agricultural biotechnology is also the focus of the Institute. Educational curriculum developed by the Institute will be flexible, dynamic and modular to ensure demand-driven availability of biotech academia for teaching, research and allied organization/industry. Molecular marker techniques will be used as an integral and supplementary part in all the breeding programmes. Trait-based genomic tools and resources will be developed by utilizing native landraces and wild species. Search for new genes, alleles and promoters from the vast biodiversity available in the country will be on the top priorities of the institute. The application of gene expression modulators to manipulate biochemical processes/pathways for desired developmental change, enhanced productivity and input use efficiency will be in common place of routine research. Development of designer agricultural crops with added beneficial components of the stakeholder’s preference will be in place through biotechnological intervention. Considering the explosion in sequence information of various species, strengthening the big data management and analytical capability of the country with respect to infrastructure as well as human resource would be of one of the important research activities of the institute. Development of molecular diagnostics for precise identification of major diseases in plants, animals and fisheries and prophylactic measures for their control will also be taken up on priority level by the institute. Nanotechnology, being a naive and fast evolving scientific field, will be used for improvement in crop production through ultrasensitive detection system for disease and pest management, nanodelivery of pesticides, vaccines, nutrients/hormones, genes etc. The institute will serve as a hub for biotech research activities undertaken under NARS by providing technical support and service facility for products, tools, protocols, techniques, database, sequencing, bioinformatics, safety studies and knowledge.